Human Development - News
24 October 2013: DRC
The Bishop of Ripon and Leeds asked an oral question in the House of Lords pressing the government on whether given the continuing violence in DRC it was safe to which to return asylum seekers.
23 October 2013: Environmental sustianbility and global
The Bishop of Ripon and Leeds intervened in a House of Lords debate on the post-MDG architecture to stress the importance of securing progress on environmental sustainability ad global inequality.
22 October 2013: Tax Justice and
the post MDG agenda
The Bishop of Ripon and Leeds used an oral question in the House of Lords to ask the government what consideration had been given to addressing the question of tax justice in the post-MDG agenda.
16 July 2013 - Human
The Bishop of Derby received a written response to his question on the financial support offered to the victims of human trafficking. HMG's response flagged up the pivotal role played by the Salvation Army in this area.
11 June 2013: Securitisation of aid
The Bishop of Derby and the Bishop of Chester contributed to a debate in the House of Lords on the securitisation of aid on Tuesday, 11 June Both Bishops spoke of the need for coherence across Whitehall in order to ensure all departmental efforts are geared to delivering strategic priorities and the wider international common good especially in conflict and post conflict situations.
20 June 2013: Church congratulates Government on
The Bishop of Derby issued a statement on Thursday, 20 June welcoming the results of the Summit's efforts on tax, trade and transparency but expressed concern at the lack of progress in in resolving political obstacles to the resolution of the conflict in Syria.
19 June 2013: Building on the success of
the G8 at the G20
The Prime Minister made a statement on the outcome of the G8 Summit to the House of Commons on Wednesday, 19 June 2013. Responding to the reading of the statement in the House of Lords, the Bishop of Liverpool welcomed the G8's trajectory of travel and asked what aspects would be taken to build on the consensus at the G20.
4 June 2013: Global Fund to combat Aids,
Tuberculosis and Malaria
The Lord Bishop of Derby contributed today to a House of Lords debate on efforts to combat aids, tuberculosis and malaria. Click here to read the Bishop's intervention in full.
31 May 2013: Bishop Welecomed Post 2015
The Rt Revd Alastair Redfern, Bishop of Derby, has welcomed the post-2015 development agenda report of the UN Secretary General's High Level Panel, co-chaired by David Cameron. The report, A New Global Partnership: Eradicate Poverty and Transform Economies through Sustainable Development, builds on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals experiment and calls for an end to absolute poverty by 2030.
15 May 2013: Debate on the Queen's Speech -
The Lord Bishop of Ripon and Leeds used the international debate on the Queen's Speech to express disappointment at the absence in the Queen's Speech of any legislative proposal to enshrine the 0.7% development target in law. Click here to read the Bishop's comments in full.
15 May 2013: Developing Countries Budgetary
Today in the House of Lords, the Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells used an intervention in a House of Lords debate to remind Peers about Christian Aid Week. Click here to read this Bishop's comments in full.
26 April 2013 - Sexual Violence in Syria
The Lord Bishop of Exeter today received responses to his written questions in the House of Lords probing the government on the extent to which rape has been used as instrument of war and torture. Click here to read the questions and responses in full.
11 April 2013 - Church welcomes G8 statement on
preventing sexual conflict in violence
The Bishop of Wakefield, the Rt Revd Stephen Platten, wrote to the Foreign Secretary, 11 April, welcoming the G8 commitment to preventing sexual violence in conflict sitiaoons. Click here to read the Bishop's letter.
5 April 2013 - Striking at the causes of
With 1000 days left to achieve the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs), the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, has joined religious leaders across the G8 urging governments to keep their promises on foreign aid. Archbishop Justin is among 80 religious leaders who have signed a letter to the Financial Times today, urging G8 countries to follow the UK in meeting existing commitments to spend 0.7% of national income on aid. With a focus on tax, trade and transparency, the religious leaders argue, the UK Presidency of the G8 has the potential to advance the MDG agenda in ways that strike at the underlying causes of poverty, in particular by ensuring the wealth created by developing countries is not lost through unfair tax practices, a lack of transparency or a failure to secure the benefits of trade for developing countries.
21 March 2013 - Church welcomes historic
decision on aid
Speaking in the House of Lords Budget debate on 21 March the Bishop of Bristol welcomed the achievement in the Budget of one of the greatest promises to the world's poorest people - that 0.7 per cent of national income will be spent on international development aid, as agreed over 40 years ago at the UN. The Bishop expressed regret, however, that more had not been done to help strengthen the capacity of developing countries to collect tax. Click here to read the Bishop's comments in full.
13 March 2013 - HIV/AIDS: Commonwealth
Leading a short debate in the House of Lords on Wednesday, Lord Black of Bentwood (Con) told the House that over 34 million people were living with aids and that last year over 1.8 million people died from HIV/AIDS. Speaking in the debate the Lord Bishop of Newcastle stressed that whilst the Church was divided on the issue of homosexuality there were never any grounds for "denying the equality before the law of every single human being, whether they are homosexual or heterosexual." Click here to read the Bishop's comments in full.
7 March 2013 - Commonwealth and Commonwealth
The Lord Bishop of Leicester used his intervention in a House of Lords debate on the Commonwealth to draw attention to the levels of interdependence that exist between Church of England dioceses and Provinces from around the Anglican Communion that help to reinforce relationship in the Commonwealth. Click here to read the Bishop's comments in full.
7 March 2013 - International Women's Day
The Lord Bishop of Coventry used his maiden speech in the House of Lords to speak about the role of women in his diocese as well as the significant contribution that women make to peace building around the world. Click here to read his speech in full.
27 February 2013 - Overseas Aid
The Bishop of Liverpool and the Bishop of Exeter led the way yesterday in Parliament pressing HMG for a clarification of the Prime Minister's recent comments regarding the possible pooling of the aid and defence budget. Click here to read their interventions in full.
27 February 2013 - Darfur, South Kordofan and
The Lord Bishop of Exeter, the Rt Revd Michael Langrish, made a moving and powerful intervention in a House of Lords debate on the humnaitrian situation in Darfur, South Kordofan and Blye Nile region of Sudan and South Sudan. Click here to read the Bishops' comments in full.
25 February 2015 - Make it a Fair Trade
Fortnight on Twitter
Click here to learn more about how Churches up and down the country are marking the start of Fair Trade Fortnight this year.
25 February 2013 - Post 2015 Millennium Development
The Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells received today written responses to his questions on how the sustianability would be integrated into the post-Millennium Development agenda. Click here to read the Bishop's questions and subsequent responses.
22 November 2012 - Building on the successes of the
The Bishop of Bath and Wells, the Rt Revd Peter Price, today took part in a House of Lords debate on the progress torwards negotiating a new post-2015 MDG framework. Bishop Peter stressed the importance of learning the lessons from the past while building on what had been secured. Click here to read the Bishop's speech in full.
21 November 2012 - Bishop expresses concern at
Rwanda's poor human rights record
The Bishop of Bath and Wells, the Rt Revd Peter Price, today asked a supplementary question in the House of Lords raising concerns at the shrinking democratic space in Rwanda. Click here to read the exchange in full.
19 November 2012 - Global Food Security
The Bishop of Derby, the Rt Revd Alistair Redfern, today received a written response to his question asking the government what assessment they have made of the impact of climate change on global food security. Click here to read the exchange in full.
14 November 2012 - UK G8 Priorities
The Bishop of Derby, the Rt Revd Alistair Redfern, today received a written response to his question asking the government what its priorties were for the UK Presidency of the G8 in 2013. Click here to read the exchange in full.
5 November 2012 - Eradicating Extreme Hunger and
The Bishop of Bath and Wells, the Rt Revd Peter Price, today received a written response to his question asking the government what steps they are taking to help achieve the eradication of extreme hunger and poverty, especially amongst rural populations by 2015. Click here to read the exchange in full.
5 November 2012 - UN Commission on the Staus of
The Bishop of Bath and Wells, the Rt Revd Peter Price, today received a written response to his question asking the government for its assessment as to why the 56th United Nations Commission on the Status of Women was unable to agree final conclusions and what steps it is taking to ensure that the Commission reaches agreement in 2013. Click here to read the Bishop's question and the subsequent response.
5 November 2012 - Maternal Mortality
The Bishop of Bath and Wells, the Rt Revd Peter Price, tabled a written question in the House of Lords pressing the government on what steps it was taking to help reduce levels of maternal mortality by 2015, in the light of Millennium Development Goal 5. Click here to read the Bishop's question and the subsequent reply.
30 October 2012 - UN Commission on the Status of
The Bishop of Bath and Wells tabled a written question in the House of Lords pressing the government on what steps it was taking to prepare for next year's UN Commission on the Status of Women. Click here to read the Bishop's question and the subsequent reply.
22 October 2012 - Church presses for grown up debate on
Speaking in a House of Lords debate on the effectiveness of development aid, the Bishop of Leicester stressed that if we could move on from the existing debate about 0.7% of UK income, we could reach the point of discussing other, more fruitful and urgent questions such as the relative merits of microfinance, social entrepreneurship and grass-roots advocacy. Click here to read the Bishop's comments in full.
17 October 2012 - HMG affirms role of the Church in
conflict resolution and development
In a House of Lords debate on Sudan and South Sudan Baronness Warsi, Senior Minister at State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office affirmed the exeperience, role and reach of the Church in S.Sudan and affirmed HMG's committment to work in partnership with the Church on conflict resolution and development concerns, especially education. Her comments came in response to two interventions in the debate by the Archbishop of York and the Bishop of Exeter. Click here to read both these interventions and Baroness Warsi's comments.
9 October 2012 - Church expresses concern at high food
The Lord Bishop of Derby tabled a written question in the House of Lords asking the government for its assessment of the recent rises in food commodity prices. Click here to read the question and subsequent response.
9 October 2012 - Human Rights in Bangladesh
The Lord Bishop of Derby participated in a House of Lords debate on the human rights situation in Bangladesh. The Bishop used his intervention to draw attention to the plight of Rohingya refugees and the work of Chrstian Aid on the ground. Click here to read the Bishop's intervention and the full debate
27 September 2012 - Church presses HMG to make trade
work for people and the environment.
The Bishop of Pontefract, the Rt Revd Tony Robinson, who Chairs the Church's World Development Network, added his name to a letter to Vince Cable pressing HMG to ensure that the EU's trade relations don't disadvantage developing countries. Click here to read the full letter.
24 September 2012 - Bishop of Derby voices concern at
rising levels of food insecurity in Yemen
The Bishop of Derby tabled a witten question in the House of Lords voicing concern at the rising levels of food insecurity in Yemen. Click here to read the full parliamentary exchange.
3 September 2012 - Education for Children Affected by
The Archbishop of Canterbury hosted a one day conference at Lambeth Palace on the issue of education for children affected by armed conflict. During his concluding remarks the Archbishop pressed for education to be made central to the humanitarian agenda. Click here to read more about this conference and its policy recommendations.
25 July 2012 - Food Security
The Bishop of Exeter, Rt Rev Michael Langrish, asked a supplementary question to an oral question on the Food Security Summit. Bishop Michael stressed the importance of supporting smaller-scale ecological food production systems practised by millions of small-scale farmers and producers. Click here to read the full parliamentary exchange.
24 July 2012 - Violence in Nigeria
The Bishop of Durham, Rt Revd Justin Welby, asked a supplementary question to an oral question on the escalating violence in Nigeria. Bishop Justin asked the government whether it remained committed to working with private and civil society organisations, particularly the churches and religious leaders in Nigeria. Click here to read the full parliamentary exchange.
26 June 2012 - Strengthening the UN Presence in
In light of the deteriorating security situation in DRC, the Bishop of Bath and Wells pressed the government as to its assessment of the current United Nations Stabilisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the ability of that mission to meet its core mandate of stabilisation and protection of civilians. To read the full exchange click here and here.
25 June 2012 - Church Responds to HMG statement on
The Rt Revd John Packer Lord Bishop of Ripon & Leeds responded to the Government's statement regarding the recent G20 Summit. The Bishop asked Lord Strathclyde about the need to tackle corruption and improve access to technology in the poorest countries of the world.To read the full exchange click here.
20 June 2012 - MDGS Post 2015
The Lord Bishop of Derby tabled a series of written questions in the House of Lords on HMG's plans for negotiating a successor agreement to the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. These questions and their subsequent replies can be read here.
12 June 2012 - Rio+20 and intergenerational
In a recorded message in advance of the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development the Archbishop of Canterbury asks: "What kind of world do we want to leave our children?" To listen to the Archbishop's full message click here.
25 May 2012 - Food Security
The Rt Revd Alastair Redfern, Lord Bishop of Derby and the Rt Revd Nigel Stock, Lord Bishop of St Edmundsbury an Ipswich spoke about the importance of international and domestic food security. Responding for the Government, Lord Taylor addressed a number of the concerns raised by both bishops.
24 May 2012 - Faith and Rio+20
On 23 May 2012 the Bishop of Bath and Wells took part in a Panel discussion with the Rt Hon Caroline Spelman, the Secretary of State for Agriculture, on preparations for the Rio+20 Summit. The discussions focused on our understanding of sustainable development and the contribution that faith can play in re-imagining communities. Coverage of this event was provided by the Guardian Online and can be read here.
23 May 2012 - Financial Transparency
In a written respone to a parliamentary question tabled by the Bishop of Derby, the Government welcomed efforts by UK businesses to increase transparency on how much tax they pay and encouraged them to go further to help build public support for, and confidence in, a fair and competitive tax system. To read the full exchange click here.
21 May 2012 - Sudan and South Sudan
The Government today responded to a parliamentary question tabled by the Bishop of Bath and Wells inquiring as to what measures it is taking to assist in arresting the violence between Sudan and South Sudan.
21 May 2012 - Tax Justice
In a written response to a parliamentary question tabled by the Bishop of Derby the government said that it was down to British Overseas territories to decide whether they should sign the multilateral convention on mutual administrative assistance in tax matters.
21 May 2102 - Fragile states and the ATT
In a Parliamentary exchange in the Lords the Bishop of Eds and Ips pressed the government to do more to ensure that fragile states and those states coming out of conflict are properly resourced to take part in next month's ATT negotiations at the UN. To read the full exchange click here.
18 May 2012 - G8 must do more to tackle food
Returning from a recent visit to South Sudan the Archbishop of York writes in an editorial article in The Independent on the vital steps that G8 countries need to take to address food security. The full editorial can be read here.
17 May 2012 - UK's Aid Budget
In the internatioal debate on the Queen's Speech, the Lord Bishop of Lichfiled expressed his diappointment at the lack of legislation to enshrine the 0.7% traget in law. The Bishop urged HMG to do so before the next General Election. Click here to read the Bishop's full intervention.
17 May 2012 - Children's health and UK's humanitarian
aid to Sudan and South Sudan
The Bishop of Wakefield, the Rt Revd Stephen Platten, asked a supplementary question about the UK's humanitarian aid programme to Sudan and South Sudan. Bishop Stephen focused his intervention on children's health. The full parliamentary exchange can be read here.
16 May 2012 - Extractives and DRC
The Rt Revd Stephen Platten, Lord Bishop of Wakefield, asked a supplementary question about the Congo and the need to tackle corporate corruption. Bishop Stephen spoke about the need for greater transparency in the dealing between corporate companies and governments around the world. The full parliamentary exchange can be read here.
12 April 2012 - DfID warned not to disregard the role of
the Churches in South Sudan
The House of Commons International Development Committee published today its report on Southern Sudan. In it the Committee of MPs warned the DfID not to disregard the constructive role that the Sudan Council of Churches can play in the areas of peacemaking and mediation. The Committee's full report can be accessed here. The Church's submission to the inquiry can be accessed here.
28 March 2012 - USPG launches appeal for Anglican Church
The Anglican mission agency USPG today launched an appeal in support of the Anglican Church in Zimbabwe as its faces ongoing harrassment and intimidation from state authourities.
26 March 2012 - The Church as Architect of
Participating in a House of Lords on Sudan the Bishop of Rippon and Leeds spoke of how churches and faith-based organisations are among those best placed to help in the provision of aid and mediation at a local level within South Sudan. To read more click here
19 March 2012 - Water and Sanitation for All
Ahead of World Water Day on 22 March the Bishop of Bath and Wells, the Rt Revd Peter Price secured time in the Lords for a debate on enhancing access to water and sanitation in developing countries. with 4,000 children dying a day in Africa because of diarrhoea, +Peter said: "It is entirely unacceptable in the twenty first century that international development efforts are still being held back because of a lack of access to clean water and sanitation." Read his speech and the full debate here.
1 March 2012 - International Women's Day
The Rt Revd Peter Price Bishop of Bath and Wells took part in the International Women's Day debate in the House of Lords. Bishop Peter spoke primarily of his experiences visiting Gaza and meeting women's groups trying to enhance and empower the community. Bishop Peter also spoke of issues faced by older women and those with HIV / Aids and concluded his comments by highlighting projects the church is involved in overseas to assist and support women. Read his speech here.
22 Februray 2012 - Ash Wednesday Declaration
The Archbishop of Canterbury signed today the Ash Wednesday Declaration, launched by Operation Noah, which calls on the Church to care for God's creation. Read more about this story here.
12 January 2012 - Time to accelerate the transition to a
The Bishop of Bath and Wells spoke during a debate on the Government's Green Agenda pressing the government to accelarte the transiation toa green economy.
24 October 2011 - Archbishop of Canterbury hosts round
table on the famine in the Horn of Africa
The Archbishop of Canterbury hosted a round table at Lambeth Palace on the famine in the Horn of Africa. The round table drew together representatives and experts from around the Anglican Communion as well as officials from the Department for International Development.
18 October 2011 - Christian Aid launches new report on
Christian Aid's new report, Healthy Harvests, sets out the benefits of sustainable agriculture in Africa and Asia. It shows how smallholder farmers can improve agricultural productivity, food security and livelihoods by adopting sustainable approaches that utilise resources, conserving technologies and that draw upon their own knowledge.
7 October 2011 - The Bishop of Exeter warns of the
Dangers of Growing Food Insecurity.
The Bisop of Exeter, the Rt Revd Michael Langrish, writes in a Church Times editorial that in an age of plenty where there is enough food for everyone there is no reason why anyone should go without. The propblem he warns is not so much a lack of food as restricted access to food.
2-7 October 2011 - Anglican Alliance hosts climate
change consultation in Sao Paulo, Brazil
The Anglican Alliance for Relief, Development and Advocacy organised a 6 day regional consultation on climate change in Brazil. This consultation draw up a Communion wide advocacy strategy on climate change for the coming years. You can read more about this consultation by clicking on the Ethical Comment blog. The results of the consultation can be read here.
September 2011 - Church Partners explain how Climate
Justice Fund makes a difference
Read more about how your contributions to the Climate Justice Fund are making a difference in Teso in the North-East of Uganda.
16 September 2011 - New Food Security Resources from the
The Anglican Alliance for Relief Development and Advocacy has produced a series of resources to assist churches mobilise their voice ahead of World Food Day on 16 October 2011. These include an update on food security as well as a Church action guide for Food Sunday.The Alliance has also produced a simple advocacy letter for adults and for children that can be used ahead of a meeting of the G20 in France, November 2011. These resources have been produced in partnership with the Ecumenical Advocacy Alliance to mark the Churches Week of Action on Food, 10-17 October 2011.
August 2011 - Crisis and Commitment
The Anglican Communion's Environment Network issued the following statement and action plan following a meeting in Lima, Peru, August 2011.
23 August 2011- Put food at the centre of
A podcast by the Bishop of London encourages churches to celebrate the season of Creationtime (1 September - 4 October) by focusing on the role of food in God's creation and everyday lives.
31 July 2011 - Archbishop of York on food crisis in Horn
On the 31 July the Archbishop of York's article in the Observer stressed the importance of supporting the people of East Africa and the role that the local Church is playing in the relief effort.
28 July 2011 - Archbishop of Canterbury supports famine
On the 28 July the Archbishop of Canterbury made an urgent appeal for donations to emergency relief activities in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia - currently facing one of the worst droughts for 60 years.
4 July 2011 - Bishop questions Government on results of
On 4 July 2011 the Bishop of Exeter tabled a written question in the House of Lords asking the government to make a statement on the results of the G20 Agriculture Minister's Meeting and how it intended to implement the resulting Action Plan.
20 June 2011 -Archbishop of Canterbury in Kenya
As part of his visit to the Diocese of Machakos in Kenya, the Archbishop of Canterbury went to the Christian Community Services offices to hear about the work they are doing in the region - empowering rural communities who are facing the challenges of food security, adaption to climate change and environmental conservation (20 June 2011). Read more about his visit here
9 June 2011 - Bishop presses Gov on food security ahead
of G20 Mtg
The Bishop of Exeter, the Rt Revd Michael Langrish, wrote to the Secretary of State for the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (9 June 2011) pressing that the issue of price volatility in food markets be discussed at the G20 Agriculture Ministers Meeting (20-22 June 2011). Analysis of the results of this meeting can be read here.
12 May 2011 - Bishop contributes to Parliamentary debate
on global food crisis
The Bishop of Hereford participated in a House of Lords debate on global food security (12 May). The debate was in response to the Foresight Report on Food and Farming Futures published by the Government's Chief Scientific Adviser.
1 May 2011 - New Christain Aid report on food
Christian Aid released its new report Hungry for Justice: Fighting Starvation in an Age of Plenty.
April 2011 - Anglican Alliance launches new campaign on
In April 2011 the Anglican Alliance for Development, Relief and Advocacy held a regional consultation in Nairobi where the question of food security emerged as a pressing priority for African provinces of the Anglican Communion. The following resource pack was produced by the Anglican Alliance to assist Churches across the Anglican Communion to work together and with others in pressing the G20 leaders when they meet in November 2011 to take the necessary steps to manage food prices and govern markets in a way that prevents future food crises.
- Introduction to Food Resources Pack
- Briefing for Food Advocacy
2010 - Diocese of St Albans launches Harvest Appeal in
support of Climate Justice
The Diocese of St Albans today launched a harvest appeal in support of the Climate Justice Fund. Read more at - 'Five a day' a luxury, challenges Bishop of St Albans
4 June 2010 - International Anglican Bible project aims
to discover the Church's role in battling climate
Members of the worldwide Anglican Communion are working together on a project to discover what the Bible tells the church about saving the planet from environmental damage. Read more here.
13 December 2009 - Act for the Sake of Love:
Archbishops's Sermon in Copenhagen
"We cannot show the right kind of love for our fellow-humans unless we also work at keeping the earth as a place that is a secure home for all people" said the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, today at an international ecumenical service in Copenhagen Cathedral at a midpoint during the critical UN Climate Change talks. Read his full sermon here.
5 December 2009 - Ecumenical Service at Westminster
The Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, today gave an address at an Ecumenical Service at Westminster Central Hall, London, in the run up to Copenhagen.
September 2009 - Church launches Climate Justice
Following a debate in its 2008 General Synod the Church launches its Climate Justice Fund ahead of the 2009 UN climate change talks in Copenhagen. Read more at: Launch of Climate Justice Fund - make it personal
9 December 2008 - Churches urge Europe's leaders to
build a green economy
In advance of the EU summit this month, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of the Church of Sweden and the Presiding Bishop of EKD have written to the President of the Council of the European Union, HE Nicolas Sarkozy, urging him to ensure that "that climate considerations are not marginalised in the search to find short and medium term solutions to immediate economic pressures." Read the full letter here.
July 2008 - General Synod debates climate change and
In July 2008 the Church of England's General Synod debated a report on climate change and human security. At the end of the debate the General Synod authorised the establishment of a Climate Justice Fund as a means by which parishes and diocese here in the UK could show solidarity with churches overseas already affected by climate change.
February 2008 - A Europe for Climate
The following briefing paper examines the developments in the EU's position on climate change. It makes recommendations as to how the emissions trading scheme might be reformatted to help mitigation efforts at home and adapation abroad.
November 2007 - Towards a Post Kyoto Climate Treaty for
This briefing paper explores the scientific and political challenges facing negotiators in Bali. It argues that the likelihood of securing a just and equitable treaty on climate change depends on moving away from particularistic notions of justice to an understanding of overarching justice, which helps to transform our relationship with each other and the natural world.
August 2007 - Climate Justice: Not Just a Green
Climate change is more than a green issue it is also a pressing humanitarian concern for many of the poorest communities around the world. The following briefing paper asks whether the Church needs to concentrate more resources on the social justice concerns of many of its partners and members from across the Anglican Communion.